Seringkali kali kita tidak mampu mengerjakan pekerjaan kita sendiri, sering menghendaki orang lain untuk melakukan sesuatu untuk kepentingan kita. Untuk itu kita memanfaatkan struktur kalimat causative.
So, apa kalimat causative verb itu? Kalimat causative menggunakan causative verb yang artinya kata kerja penyebab ( verbs that cause something) atau yang menyebabkan. Berikut ini beberapa contoh kalimat yang menggunakan pola causative verb.
Thomas wants to have his car washed now ( Thomas menginginkan motornya dicuci sekarang)
Nindy would like to have her hair shortened ( Nindy menghendaki rambutnya dipendekkan
Ada beberapa kata kerja yang dikelompokkan kedalam causative verbs ini antara lain
a. Have : meminta, menyuruh, menghendaki b. Make : meminta, membuat, menyebabkan c. Let : mengijinkan, memperbolehkan d. Help : membantu e. Get: menghendaki menyuruh
1. Causative have : : meminta, menyuruh, menghendaki A. Contoh
1. My parents always have me get up early in the morning. ( bermakna aktif ) Orang tuaku senantiasa menghendaki aku bangun pagi- pagi
2. Nindy usually has her newspaper sent to her house, but yesterday she had it sent to her office (bermakna pasif ).Nindy biasanya menghendaki surat kabarnya dikirim kerumah, akan tetapi kemarin ia menghendaki surat kabarnya dikirim ke kantor.
Saphira and Sania plan to have thie new dresses made according to the current models. ( bermakna pasif ) Saphira and Sania menghendaki pakaian barunya dibuat sesuai model yang baru
Please, don’t have me cry again. ( bermakna aktif ) Aku mohon agar tidak membuatku menangis lagi.
I want to have my heart entertained. ( Bermakna pasif ) Aku ingin hati ini dihibur.
B. Conclution ( kesimpulan )
Jika bermkna aktif , causative “ have “ diikuti kata kerja bentuk pertama.
Jika bermakna pasif, “ have “ diikuti kata kerja bentuk ketiga (verb 3)
Penggunaan has/have disesuaikan dengan subject kalimat.
Subject tunggal ( present ) has Subject jamak ( present ) have Subject tunggal/jamak ( past) had
2. Causative make : meminta, membuat, menyebabkan A. Contoh
Dhane, your smile makes me think a thousand times to leave you.
Crawford can really make her boyfriend knee down
During the exam, Mr. Boy made students finish the test within 60 minutes only
The moderator of the siminarcould made all the participants concentrate their minds on the matter very well.
Sweetheart, I will make you stand by me and stay with me
B. Conclution ( kesimpulan )
a. Causative “ make” hanya dapat dipergunakan dalam kalimat yang bermakna aktif saja! b. Kata kerja setelah “ make “ adalah kata kerja bentuk pertama
3. Causative let : mengijinkan, memperbolehkan A. Contoh
Her parents let sonali take the bus to school
Does your mother let you eat out at KFC?
Surely, I will no let you stay home alone
Please, let the mechanic check the engine
Dan, don’t let your boyfriend wait for you without an end!
B. Conlution ( kesimpulan )
a. Causative “ let “ hanya dapat di pergunakan dalam kalimat yang bermakna aktif saja! b. Kata kerja setelah “ let “ adalah kata kerja bentuk pertama 4. Causative help : membantu A. Contoh
Please help me do this homework. I can’t understand how to do it
Could you help me find a new boarding house to stay?
Danny will be very glad if you can help her get some gifts from the store
B. Conclution ( kesimpulan ) a. Causative “ help “ hanya dapat dipergunakan dalam kalimat yang bermakna aktif saja! b. Kata kerja setelah “ help “ adalah kata kerja bentuk pertama.
5. Causative get : menghendaki menyuruh. A. Contoh
Pamella wants to get her motorcycle checked and fixed. Because it has been broken more than a week. (Bermakna pasif)
Pamella menginginkan sepeda motornya diperiksa dan diperbaiki.
Tamara usually gets her montly magazine delivered to her house, but last month , she got it delivered to her office . ( bermakna pasif) tamara biasanya menghendaki majalah bulanannya dikirim kerumah, akan tetapi bulan yang lalu, dia menghendaki majalah tersebut dikirim kekantornya.
Rosallia usually gets her mother to fry some eggs for her. ( bermakna aktif ) Rosallia biasanya meminta ibunya untuk menggorengkan beberapa telur untuknya
Did you get Mr. Boy to drive you home last night? ( bermakana aktif ) . apakah dirimu meminta Mr. Boy untuk mengantarmu pulang tadi malam?
B. Conclution (kesimpulan)
A. Causative “get” bermakna aktif jika diikuti to + verb I B. Causative “ get” berwarna pasif jika diikuti kata kerja bentuk ketiga C. Penggunaan get, gets, atau disesuaikan dengan subject kalimat.
Causative test Junior high school Time : 90minutes
Choose A, B, C ,D or E as the best answer! 1. Mr. Tanaka would you like to have his car .......... at the repair shop
A. To repair B. Be repaired C. Be repairing D. Repaired E. Will be repaired
2. Mr. Ahmad got the students ..........their test before 10.00
A. To finish B. Finished C. Be finished D. Finish E. Must finish
3. Mr. Bardy had his house .........
A. To paint B. Be painted C. Repainted D. To be repainted E. To paint
4. “ Novie” would you like to close the window? “ clara said. In other words, we can say, that ...... A. Clra needs to open the window for Novie B. Novie needs the windows to be opened C. Novie asked Clara to close the window D. Clara asked Novie to open the window E. Clara had the window closed 5. The story of the movie has made me ..... my life too much.
A. To think about B. Think about C. Thought about D. Thingking about E. To be thought of
6. The woman wanted to have the car next to his .... backward.
A. Park B. To be parked C. Move D. To move E. Moved
7. The young man is foolish to cut his hair himself so he ......
A. Wants to comb it B. Wants to wash it C. Wants to dye it D. Has it cut E. Has cut it
8. You will have to get your father ....... to the bookstore. You need to buy some books.
A. To make you B. To take you C. Taking you D. To send you E. To buy you
9. If you don’t have time to write all of those letters, you can .......
A. Write them now B. Get to write them now C. Have them written now D. Type them now E. Have them to be written
10. “The man had his car washed because it was very dirty,” this sentence means that ...... A. The man washed the car B. The man was washing his car now C. The man was washing his car D. Because it was dirty, the man washed his car E. Someone washed the car for the man 11. A: the curtains of my room need washing. B: well, go to the laundry and ........
A. Was them B. They are washed C. It should wash them D. Have them washed E. Make them wash
12. It is impossible for us to translate the whole book within 2 weeks. So we A. Have to translate it all by ourselves B. Have someone help us C. Have translated the whole book D. Have been asked to translate it E. Have given all the translation to the assistants 13. My little brother had scattered all his toys on my bed, so I had him ..... the bed before night fell.
A. Clean B. To clean C. Cleaned D. Be cleaning E. To be cleaned
14. If you plan to have a long trip, you must .....
A. Have checked the car B. Have had the car checked C. To have the car checked D. Have the car checked E. Have been checked the car
15. Ann has beautiful plants in her garden, but they all seem to be dying. I am sure she ........
A. Seldom has them watered B. Has asked someone to water them C. Never has to water them D. Has been watering them E. Has always watered them
16. She has grown up now. She needs to have her old pants.
A. Longer B. Length C. Lengthened D. Bigger E. Very long
17. A: I fixed tthe light in the bathroom yesterday, but it went out again. B: why don’t you have an electrician.......?
A. To be checked B. Checking it C. To check it D. Check it E. Has to check it
18. The manager had his secretary get the ticket for a flight” means........ A. The manager was asked by his secretary to get the ticket B. The secretary had to get the ticket for the manager C. The manager went with his secretary to get the ticket D. The manager got the ticket for his secretary E. The secretary had got the ticket for the manager 19. A: why does the secretary have work overtime B: her boss....... the letters
A. Has retyped B. Has been retyping C. Has her retype D. Has to retype E. Wants to retype
20. A: aren’t you going to make hotel reservation? B: no. I’ll have the travel agents ..............
A. To do it B. In doing it C. Doing it D. Do it E. He does it
21. The curtains are dirty ; we ......... at the dry – cleaner’s A. Must have washed them B. Have washed them C. Must have them washed D. Are washing them E. Washing them
22. A: this cake is delicious; is it home made? B : you know it wasn’t ........
A. I baked it myself B. Lucy asked me to bake it C. It was I who baked it D. I had lucy bake it E. I had to bake it
23. Now that she has grouth up, my niece has her old dresses lengthened. This means ..... A. My niece has lengthened her old dresses B. My niece asks someone to lengthen her old dresses C. My niece has been told to lengthen her old dresses D. My niece has to lengthen her old dresses herself E. My niece has been asked by someone to lengthen her old dresses. 24. The workers went on strike to get the management of the company .......
A. To raise their wages B. Has to raise their wages C. Raise their wages D. Is to raise their wages E. Raised their wages
25. The women want to have the police offer ........ the man who grabbed her handbag.
A. To arrest B. Arresting C. Is To arrest D. Arrested E. Will arrest
26. The disaster had made a lot of people in the region .......their possessions.
A. Lose B. Loss C. Lost D. Have to lose E. Had lost
27. The authorities couldn’t help having the banks .......
A. To close down B. Are closed down C. Close down D. Have to be closed E. Closed down
28. The building was burnt down by the mob. As the condition of the country is getting better now, the owner wants to get it .......
A. Rebuild B. To rebuild C. Rebuilding D. Is rebuilt E. Is to rebuilt
Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently.
It also studies how language varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables, e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age, etc., and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes. As the usage of a language varies from place to place, language usage also varies among social classes, and it is these sociolects that sociolinguistics studies.
Sociolinguistics is a branch of Linguistics that is newly developed by linguists after the previous discovery of linguistics fields such as phonology, morphology, syntax, pragmatics, lecicography and semantics. Many of the experts give the definition of sociolinguistics as follows:
Hudson (1996) defined sociolinguistics as the study of language in relation to society. It is confirmed by Hymes that sociolinguistics refers to correlation between language and societies, and between particular linguistic and social phenomena (1974, p.vii). It shows that sociolinguistics is a field of study that assumes that human society is made up of many related patterns and behaviors in which some are linguistical.
According to Chaika, “sociolinguistics is the study of the ways people use language in social interactions of all kinds” (1982, p.2). Similarly, Wardaugh (1998, p.12) also stated that sociolinguistics is concerned with investigating the relationships between language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and of how languages function in communication. It means that sociolinguistics is concerned with how people use language when they interact each other so that it can be seen what the language patterns are and how they are applied in any situation of communication.
A further explanation is given by Holmes (1992) that sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society. Sociolinguists are interested in explaining why we speak differently in different social contexts, and they are concerned with identifying the social functions of language and the ways it is used to convey social meaning. Examining the way people use language in different social contexts provides a wealth of information about the way language works, as well as about the social relationships in a community.
From the definitions above, it can be concluded that sociolinguistics studies the use of language in relation to social dimension that implicates the social relationships of social community. Sociology of language is the study of society in relation to language and we can conclude that the formula of sociolinguistic as follow” if language as long as is understandable language words. So, both of them are related. It means language is power.
1.2 The Task of Sociolinguistic
The goal of linguistics is to provide valid analyses of language structure. Linguistic theory is concerned with establishing a coherent set of independent principles to explain phenomena in language.
There are no primitive languages. Each language is adapted for the community which speaks it, be this industrialized or not.
Onomatopoeia is not a major principle in language although symbols (icons) may be present on a more abstract level.
There is no such thing as correct language in any absolute sense. Language is neutral and should not be the object of value judgements. Lay people tend to confuse language and attitudes towards those who use language.
Written language is secondary and derived from spoken language. Despite its status in western societies, written language is only of marginal interest to the linguist.
Linguistics is a science although the evidence for assumptions about the structure of language is never direct. Linguists are more concerned with designing valid and general models of linguistic structure rather with than searching for proof in any strictly empirical sense.
Language consists largely of rules which determine its use. There are, however, many exceptions. Native speakers can deal with a large amount of irregularity which is stored in the mental lexicon.
Knowledge of language refers to many abstract structures such as those of sentence types or systemic units such as phonemes or morphemes.
Language would appear to be ordered modularly, i.e. to consist of a set of subsystems, which are labelled ‘levels of language’, e.g. phonology, morphology or syntax.
Most knowledge about language is unconscious and cannot be accessed directly. The task of the linguist is often to demonstrate the existence of this unconscious knowledge and to suggest methods of describing it.
Language shows duality of structure, that is it involves two levels of structure, one of units and one of elements use to build these units. Take the structure of words as an example. These consist of sounds which in themselves have no meaning. For instance, one cannot say that /p/, /u/ or /t/ have a meaning but the combination /put/ put does.
1.3 The Examples Sociolinguistics and Task of Sociolinguist. 1.3.1 Sociolinguistics
For examples : a sociolinguist might determine through study of social attitudes that a particular vernacular would not be considered appropriate language use in a business or professional setting. Sociolinguists might also study the grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and other aspects of this sociolect much as dialectologists would study the same for a regional dialect.
1.3.2 Task of sociolinguist
An example of a sociolinguistic variable is (r) in New York City. The distribution of the variable may be studied in terms of whether a speaker pronounces or deletes the consonant /r/ in final or post-vocalic preconsonantal positions (for example in car, cart). Speaker A's use of the variable can be compared with speaker B's, since (r) is a piece of the language which can be counted. The variants of a given variable are identified in advance and assigned a numerical value which reflects the social values atttached to them. Their incidence is correlated statistically with (i) relevant features of the sentence or discourse environment and (ii) with social characteristics, such as class, of their speakers. That is, the value assignment permits a given individual to be assigned a position on a status scale. The status indexes are then grouped into (for instance) classes.
2. My depiction of langage, langue, parole
Langage is a system of sound that human used to comunicate and interact as verbal to each other. Langage as a language universal or general that a group of people used to comunicate or interact .
Langue represents the “work of a collective intelligence,” which is both internal to each individual and collective, in so far as it is beyond the will of any individual to change. a system of specific sound which group used in specific environment
The study of langue would be focused instead on generally applicable conditions of possibility or
Example: he eat nudle become eat his nudle
designates individual acts, statements and utterances, events of language use manifesting each time a speaker’s ephemeral individual will through his combination of concepts and his “phonation”—the formal aspects of the utterance
The study of parole would be entirely focused on individual utterances, using all the available resources of formal and empirical study to analyze actual statements, usually within a specific language.
Example: “eh lho datang gak ke parti gua? Bokap ama nyokap lho boleh ikut
3. A. I think hudson statement is sociolinguistically and acceptable because we can prove it in many aspects such as:
B. The relationship Can we find any relationship .Users in a society can be defined in terms of their individual, temporal, regional, social affiliations, and their range of intelligibility, so there are individual, temporal, regional, social and standard varieties respectively. Moreover, idiolect exists in other dialects all the time. In other words, in temporal, regional, social and standard dialect, there is always individual dialect which can display a certain person’s features of speech or writing habits.
When language is used, it is always used in a context. What gets said and how it gets said is always dictated by a variety of situations. Some situations seem to depend generally and fairly consistently on some regular sets of language features, so that distinctive varieties of language occur. Dialectal varieties are language variations that are associated with different users of language. As users in a society can be defined in terms of their individual, temporal, regional, and social affiliations, and their range of intelligibility, so there are individual, temporal, regional, social and standard varieties respectively. These are relatively permanent features of the language user in a speech event. Diatypic varieties are language variations that are associated with the different use to which they are put. Such varieties do not depend on the people who use the language, but on the occasion when it used.
Diatypic varieties, commonly called registers, are language variations that are associated with the different use to which they are put. Different types of language are selected as appropriate to different types of occasion. The choice is determined by the convention that a certain kind of language is appropriate to a certain use. The occasions can be classified along three dimensions, each representing an aspect of the situation and the part played by the language in them. In this way, registers may be distinguished according to field of discourse, mode of discourse and tenor of discourse.
Field of discourse is the linguistic reflection of the purposive role of the language user, the type of social activity the language user is engaged in doing in the situation in which the text has occurred. Non-technical fields of discourse are phatic communion, gossip, casual conversation and personal letters. Technical fields of discourse are those which teachers, lawyer, sergeant, scientist, expert, and informed enthusiast are related to, and are more likely to have one-to-one relationship to.
Mode of discourse is the linguistic reflection of the relationship that the language user has to the medium of communication. We continually change the medium through which communication takes place. For most of us, speaking is used much more than writing. And people say that writing is speech written down. Spoken language is often full of false starts, interruptions, repetitions, grunts, shrieks and er’s which do not appear in written texts. Written language, on the other hand, has features that do not occur in speech---the use of punctuation to direct attention to grammar, for instance. So difference in medium can yield variations within the same language. They reflect the very different situations that the two media take place in.
Tenor of discourse is the linguistic reflection of the personal relationships between speaker/writer and hearer/reader-called personal tenor, and of what the user is trying to do with language for/to his or her addressee(s)-called functional tenor. Personal tenor is concerned with the degrees of formality of the language used. Functional tenor is concerned with the intention of the user in using the language.
As contextual categories, field, mode and tenors are interrelated. Field is related to mode. There are things we tend to talk about and the things we tend to write about. Mode, in turn, is related to personal and functional tenors: formal and written tend to go together as informal and spoken, and the phatic function is common in the spoken mode while the descriptive is in the written.
4. The significance of Sociolinguistics for Language Learning
By studying sociolinguistic, we are talking language and society.both of the we cannot separate. In my opinion, the significance of sociolinguistic for language learning are:
Easier for us to avoid misunderstanding in society communication
Easier for us explore the strategy of adaptation in society communication.
Make us wiser in various language in society
We are not easy to adjust language style,habit and dialect
As reference for us as a language learning to acquire knowledge
To enhance our information about language society
By studying sociolinguistics, we can be a translator in society between our language and another language
By studying sociolinguistics, we can be easy to teach and explain our students problems
By studying sociolinguistic, we can be united by using language
5. The Concepts of Pidgins and Creole 1. The Concept of Pidgin
Pidgin language (origin in Engl. word `business'?) is nobody's native language; may arise when two speakers of different languages with no common language try to have a makeshift conversation. Lexicon usually comes from one language, structure often from the other. Because of colonialism, slavery etc. the prestige of Pidgin languages is very low. Many pidgins are `contact vernaculars', may only exist for one speech event
According to HYMES (1971:84): "Pidginization is [a] complex process of sociolinguistic change comprising reduction in inner form, with convergence, in the context of restriction in use. A pidgin is a result of such a process that has achieved autonomy as a norm. The context of restricted use in pidginization need not be external but may be internal to a speech community instead... The result of pidginization may acquire a name, but not an independent life; that is, it may be a pre-pidgin continuum."
According to John RICKFORD (1977:191-2): "The process of pidginization is usually assumed to begin when a language is used only for very limited communication between groups who speak different native languages. Sharply restricted in domains of use, it undergoes varying degrees of simplification and admixture. If a new stable variety of the language emerges from this process, it might be described as a pidgin."
So, based on the definition above the writer conclude that pidgin focuses in language of trading, no native speaker, absence of grammatical morphems and limited vocabulary because just they want to undestand each other.
For exampes: Indonesia learner’s who speaks English.” What is your name? Sir, can I help you? Etc. If he/she uses english in daily activity and he/she exposures english languge, .this process is called pidginization.
2. The Concept of Creole
Creole is a language that was originally a pidgin but has become nativized, a community of speakers claims it as their first language. Sometimes the pidgin becomes stable and established and comes to be spoken as a mother-tongue by children: the language has then become a creole, which quickly develops in complexity and is used in all functional settings. The process of turning a pidgin into a creole is called creolization." For example: some words english language, we have adopted and to be our mother tongue such as ( system,bus, pasca etc)
6. “ Apakah mbak sudah kerasan tinggal disini?”
“Saya tidak suka kekerasan, saya orang baik baik”
My analsis in this small conversation
This conversation happened between florest’s student and javanese student (room mate) in their boarding house in Malang. In java,” kerasan “ it means enjoy, or in indonesa language “ betah”,”senang” . in this conversation florest’s student did’t understand what the javanese said, and offended about the javanese student dialect. Florest’s students think that she likes violent but actually javanese student means that she wants to ask her is she enjoy in her new boarding house or not.
In other hand, between javanese student and florest student are misunderstanding in “kerasan” meaning, Because javanese student using inner code mixing. Inner Code Mixing occurs, if the speaker inserts the elements of their own language into national language, the elements of dialect into their own language, or elements of varieties and style into their dialect.
7.1 people do (especially youth) tend to code mix or code switch in their language because
They want to create a interest situation, condition or atmosphere
They want to make audience or hearer understand
They try to deliver better meaning related to the society that they belong to
They want to emphasise their identity
they cannot find proper words or expressions or when there is no appropriate translation for the language being used
2 . For examples
a. code switching
according to Hudson (1995:51) code switching happens if people speak more than one language that they choose according to circumstances.
according to soewito (1983:68 code switching is code that transited from one code to another code. Then, code switching can be dialect switching ( in one language), utterance or variety switching. Type of code switching based on the definition above are;
1. Extern code switching
Extern Code Switching occurs when one language is switched into another language in different group of language, for example bahasa indonesia is switched into English or in versa.
Example : “I refuse to count unless you buy me a scale. Ini mur waktu kita beli juga si suplier itung pake scale. Mana ada orang ngitung mur sebiji-sebiji?”
In this example, the conversant switches English into Indonesia or the conversant uses two languages.
The external code switching in example above are
I refuse to count unless you buy me a scale ( she/he wants to count if she/he buys him a scale
Suplier ( seller)
Scale ( nemerator,measurer)
2. Intern Code Switching
Intern Code Switching occurs when one language is switched into another language in the same group of language. The language is switched into another variant of the same group
Foer Example : “Loh? Aduh..iki kepriye, toh? Kenapa nih? Eh, kamu kenapa? Kok kamu ngomong melulu gak mau diem sih? Diem dong!” In this example, conversant switches Javanese into Indonesian or the conversant uses two languages.
Intern code switching above is Loh? Aduh..iki kepriye, toh? (what? Shit ...what is this?
b. Code mixing
Code mixing the two languages are used without any purpose that the speaker wants to achieve or a fluent bilingual talking to another fluent bilingual changes language without any change at all in the situation.
1. Inner Code Mixing
Inner Code Mixing occurs, if the speaker inserts the elements of their own language into national language, the elements of dialect into their own language, or elements of varieties and style into their dialect.
For example : “Nah ini dia yang saya demen.” This example uses Indonesian language, but the conversant insert a word, demen. Demen in this example means like. this example is included into inner code mixing, because the elements of their own language into national language, the elements of dialect into their own language, or elements of varieties and style into their dialect.
2. Outer Code Mixing
Outer Code Mixing occurs if the speaker insert the element of their own language into foreign language.
Example : “Gaji dia orang di Factory yang lama lebih banyak dari disini!” This example uses indonesian language , but the conversant insert words, factory, which contitute as the vocabulary of English. this example is include into outer code mixing because the conversant insert the elements of their own language into pieces of foreign language.
8. Explanation between subordinate and coordinate
A. If we say “ language is a part of culture, it means culture is above of language and language under of culture. It is subordinate.
If we say “ language and culture are in the equal position or equally important sine culture is a system that organizes human interaction and language is a system that organizes human communication or act as a medium of comunication , it means that both of them are equal and important in society. The second claim is coordinative
B. Edwar sapir and benjamin lee whorf belong to subordinate and coordinate. Language and culture are not separated and both of them are important.
9. Edwar sapir and benjamin lee whorf hyphothesis
Language shapes thought patterns: Linguistic determinism a language determines certain nonlinguistic cognitive processes; so, learning a language changes the way a person thinks Linguistic relativity speakers of different languages think in different ways. Linguistics) the theory that human languages determine the structure of the real world as perceived by human beings, rather than vice versa, and that this structure is different and incommensurable from one language to another
a. Edwar sapir hypothesis
The fact of the matter is that the ‘real world’ is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group. No two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality. The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same worlds with different labels attached (1929: 209).
b. Benjamin Whorf hypothesis
We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languages…We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an [implicit but obligatory] agreement to organize it in this way – an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language.
Sapir and whorf hypothesis assumed that a close relationship between language and culture lnguage device experience for us. from this evidence sapir and whorf devellop their hypothesis that the language of speaker provide a structure that categories space, time, and other aspects of reality into a world view. This is called linguistic relativism because it makes that the world experience differently among language community.
According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language does not only allow us to voice our ideas, but also determines our experience of reality, in the hypothesis above , I disagree because we can see and think only what language allows us to see and think. A re-accuring example is that of George Orwell's dysoptian novel "1984" where a totalitarian government tries to control how people behave as well as how they think by inventing a new language called Newspeak. Although it is arguable that language is one of the ways of knowing, allowing us to communicate with one another in an organized, intended and creative way, in order to describe things, as well as possible influence, persuade, and possibly manipulate the way people see things, I don't know if I would go so far as to agree with the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. One strong example is that of babies and animals who are unable to communicate in the traditional sense, but it is certainly arguable that they are able to think for themselves. In my opinion, language is certainly a very powerful way of knowing, but I do believe there is a reality independent of language, and that language is a tool with which we use to explore, examine and discuss our thoughts and ideas.
10. “ SPEAKING” Abbreviation According Dell Hymes Means As Follow : a. Situation (S)
The situation is composed of the setting and the scene. The setting refers to time and place, i.e., the concrete the physical circumstances in which speech takes place. The scene refers to the abstract psychological setting or the cultural definition of the occasion. A particular bit of speech may actually serve to define a scene, whereas another bit of speech may be deemed to be quite inappropriate in certain circumstances. Within a particular setting, of course, participants are free to change scenes, as they change the level of formality (e.g., go from serious to joyful) or as they change the kind of activity in which they are involved (e.g., begin to drink or to recite poetry).
b. Participants (P)
The participants include various combinations of speaker-listener, addressor-addressee, or sender-receiver. A two-person conversation involve a speaker and hearer whose role change; a political speech involves an addressor and addressees (the audience); and a telephone message involves a sender and a receiver. A prayer obviously makes a deity and participant. In a classroom a teacher’s question and a student’s response involve not just those two as speaker and listener but also the rest of the class as audience, since they too are expected to benefit from the exchange.
c. Ends (E)
Ends can be divided into outcomes (the purpose of the event from a social/cultural point of view) and goals (the purposes of the individual participants). A trial in a courtroom has a recognizable social end in view, but the various participants, i.e., the judge, jury, prosecution, defence, accused, and witnesses, have different personal goals. Likewise, a marriage ceremony serves a certain social end, but each of the various participants may have his or her own unique goals in getting married or in seeing a particular couple married.
d. Act sequence (A)
Act sequence includes message form (how something is said) and content (what is said) together. Both message form and message content involve communicative skills that vary from one culture to another. Speakers have to know how to formulate speech events and speech acts in ways that their culture values and also how to recognize what is being talked about, when a topic changes, and how to manage changes in topic. Public lectures, casual conversations, and cocktail party chatter are all different forms of speaking; with each go different kinds of language and things talked about. e. Key (K)
Key refers to the tone, manner or spirit in which a particular message is conveyed whether it is mock or serious, perfunctory or painstaking, light-hearted, pedantic, sarcastic, pompous, and so on. The key may also be marked nonverbally by certain kinds of behavior, gesture, posture, or even deportment. When there is a lack of fit between what a person is actually saying and the key that the person is using, listeners are likely to pay more attention to the key than to the actual content. Often, certain keys are closely associated with other aspects of communication, like setting or participant (you expect the key to be solemn in a church but a clown to communicate in a jovial key). A possible result of conflict between the content of an act and the expected key is sarcasm.
f. Instrumentalities (I)
Instrumentalities include both channels and forms of speech. By channel, Hymes simply means the way a message travels from one person to another.The most commonly used channels are oral or written, but messages can also be transmitted by such means as telegraph, smoke signals, semaphore, etc. By forms of speech, Hymes means languages and their subdivisions: codes, dialect, varieties, and register.
Related to the matter of the discussion of this research, the researcher takes speech style as counterpart to register for it can be considered as form of speech in accordance with aspects of persons, situation, and genres (Hymes, 1974: 59) g. Norms (N)
Norms of communication, by Hymes, are divided into norms of interaction and norm of interpretation. Both of them are determined by cultural aspects of certain community. Norms of interaction refers to specific behaviors and properties that attach to speaking. Norm of interpretation is more or less what we mean by the expression ‘reading between the lines’. It involves trying to understand what is being conveyed beyond what is in the actual words used.
h. Genre (G)
Genre refers to categories like poem, myths, tale, proverb, riddle, curse, prayer, oration, lecture, commercial, form letter, editorial, etc. In Hymes’ view, casual speech is not the absence of any genre, but a genre of its own. From this, then, we can conclude that casual speech is genre of daily communication in general. Genres often coincide with speech events, but have to be distinguished from speech events since a speech genre can occur in more than one speech event.